The turbine wheel is connected by a shaft to a compressor wheel and the two wheels turn together to suck in and compress large amounts of ambient air. This air is very dense and very hot, so it is passed through a charge-air cooler, where it cools and gains even higher density before entering the engine. The presence of this compressed air makes the fuel burn more efficiently, delivering greater power while consuming less energy.
As a result, more power can be generated from smaller displacement engines – and ultimately this means better fuel efficiency. Increasingly, turbos are coupled with high pressure fuel injection systems, which makes for even more thorough, efficient and cleaner combustion.
Although the underlying concept of turbocharging is simple, its application is extremely complex.
In a waste-gate turbo, an actuator is used to open and close a by-pass valve to divert exhaust gas. This ability to restrict the amount of gas reaching the turbine makes it possible to regulate boost by controlling the rotating speed of the compressor.
Or in case of a of a variable geometry turbocharger such (VGT) and variable nozzle turbines (VNT), the actuator make changes to physical component orientation and thus affects the performance output without waste of exhaust energy.
In all, the technology of modern turbochargers is moving forward at a tremendous pace and therefore, understanding and keeping up-to-date with the technical specifications and advances is a key goal of Turbo Hellas Team.